illinois native trees and shrubs

The microbiology that naturally occurs in healthy soil helps native plants to absorb the necessary nutrients and water from the soil, leading to peak performance. You may have heard about certain invasive plant material that can overtake not only your garden area, but can spread to become a pest all over. Light pink flowers. About 55,000 acres of the 70,000 acres of preserves are in a natural state (the other 14,000 is used for parking lots, picnic groves, nature centers, and such). This trees pushes the boundary of being considered a medium size tree (medium is usually up to about 50') but can range anywhere from 40-70' and there are cultivars available that are much shorter. As is implied in the name River Birch preferred moist well-drained soils – so avoid planting them on high and dry locations such as berms. Illinois Native Grasses & Wildflowers. Native plants are becoming a larger part of our built environment each year as more and more gardeners begin to recognize their value. The state tree was decided in 1907 by a vote of school children and in that tradition, another vote was held in 1973, effectively changing the state symbol to Quercus alba, White Oak. Other plants are considered introduced. 1977. This Illinois native produces yellow flowers in upright clusters measuring up to 6 inches tall. River Birch (Betula nigra) – Did you know that River Birch is actually an Illinois native? The right animal life adds a healthy balance to your ecosystem and many of them can be quite beautiful. Illinois holds a great diversity of natural habitats and communities, from cypress swamps in the south, beech-maple forests in the east, tallgrass prairies in the central region, steep bluffs and palisades along the western rivers, bogs and wetlands in the northern counties, and numerous other unique natural communities in between. Make sure to plant this tree in the spring to allow time for it to establish in the soil and it will even tolerate some shade but avoid alkaline sites as it can cause iron chlorosis to occur. low and bottomland woods; margins of ponds and lakes. Since native plants enjoy our climate and soils they can grow vigorously and fight off most disease organisms and fungal pathogens without our help. Northern Illinois Native Plants Midwest Native Woody Plants Container Grown Native Trees, Shrubs and Evergreens 2Gallon up to 20Gallon Liner Production to Pot-in-Pot Production Contract Growing. There are a lot of gardeners interested in using native plants, and there are good reasons for doing so, said a University of Illinois Extension horticulture educator. Fox Valley River Birch (Betula nigra 'Little King') only reaches 8-10 feet tall which is much smaller and more space friendly for small yards. There are native plants that can be aggressive in their growth patterns, causing them to wreak havoc in a small garden. Many of these features are subtly timed to synchronize with other species. I know in the past I've talked about native plants and have of course mentioned my number one favorite tree that just happens to be an Illinois native – Taxodium distichum Baldcypress. An enriching force in the landscape, native shrubs are ideal for creating sheltering habitat for birds along with a bounty of berries or nuts in the fall. You might be thinking that you want to keep “critters” out of your garden but that’s not true. ©2020 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign | College of ACES |  Web Privacy Notice | EEO | Accessibility | Staff Login | myExtension, Extension Educator, Local Foods and Small Farms Educator, College of Agricultural Consumer & Environmental Sciences, Serving Henderson, Knox, McDonough and Warren Counties, Serving Calhoun, Cass, Greene, Morgan and Scott Counties, Serving Adams, Brown, Hancock, Pike and Schuyler Counties, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Presenter: Ryan Pankau, Extension Educator, Horticulture, University of Illinois. Acer negundo (Box Elder) Acer nigrum (Black Maple) Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) Acer rubrum (Red Maple) Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple) Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) Aesculus glabra (Ohio Buckeye) Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) ILLINOIS NATIVE PLANTS This brochure is a guide to the characteristics and benefits of selected Illinois plants to help home gardeners choose native . Additional webinars. Native plants "grew up" in Illinois. Newcombs Wildflower Guide by Lawrence Newcomb. Possibility Place (specializes in native trees and shrubs has some perennials) 7548 W. Monee Manhattan Rd — Monee, IL 60449 — 708-534-3988 www.possibilityplace.com. Trees - Low branching slightly. Reaching 30-40 feet, it is a slow grower, growing less than a foot each year but worth the time. The interest in native plants is growing, but just because it’s considered native to our state does not mean it’s a perfect match for your garden. Native or indigenous plants naturally occur in the region in which they evolved. Whether your home resides in the heart of “the prairie state”, the Chicagoland of northern Illinois or the “downstate” regions of southern Illinois, Nature Hills Nursery has a shrub to fit your unique soils and conditions. White Oak, Q. alba - 50-80' h and w. Mildly shade tolerant. It is susceptible to leaf blotch and may be difficult to find in nurseries. American Hophornbeam (Osrya virginiana) – This tree is considered one of Illinois' toughest native hardwoods resistant to a variety of insects and diseases. Many experts agree that if you only plant one tree in your lifetime, let it be an oak. It should be noted that American Hophornbeam is very sensitive to salts so avoid areas where salt sprays or salt run off from deicer salts can occur. Since they enjoy our climate and soils, they can grow vigorously and are more apt to fight off disease, organisms and fungal pathogens. Culture and Maintenance of Native Trees and Shrubs. Little, Brown and Company. When insect populations are not healthy, neither are the populations of certain birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Because of our unique soils and climate, plants that are native to Illinois are able to strive and survive through our seasonal conditions, diseases, and even predatorial… Native shrubs and trees provide food, places to hide and rest, and places to lay eggs and raise young. Host trees for: imperial and polyphemus moths, red-spotted purple and several species of hairstreak butterflies. This is a subjective decision that each gardener must make, but something to keep in mind before planting. Bur Oak, Q. macrocarpa 50-100' h and w. Full sun. Also included are notes about the plant’s structure or growth habits to help you make an educated selection. Central Illinois Native Trees and Shrubs – Includes each plant’s common name, scientific name, sun level requirements, soil needs, height, and bloom time and color. Both have the traditionally recognized flower color of the common Eastern Redbud but with a few spiced up features – shorter height and interesting leaf color. A native plant to an environment is a plant that occurs naturally, or "grew up," in that environment. 2001. So I figured this time around I would focus on some small and medium sized native Illinois trees considering Baldcypress has the potential to reach 50-70 feet tall! Another benefit to the Illinois heritage of native plants is that our certain creatures – butterflies, birds, bees, etc, recognize them as a food source! One example is the Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias Incarnata) which can be nearly defoliated by monarch caterpillars and the plant will be no worse for the wear! Plant in part-shade to full sun in well-drained soils in the spring to allow it time to establish in the soil. With proper planning and proper plant choices, your outdoor living space can be a functioning ecosystem. Native plants also often provide habitat, shelter and food for birds, bees, butterflies and other wildlife. Pollination 3. TREES. Natural Habitat in Illinois 1. Plants included on the website are native to one or more of those states (some may also be native to states outside the scope of this website). Downy Serviceberry can reach 15-25' tall and can grow either as a multi-trunk or single stem tree that blooms white in the spring with yellow-orange to red fall color. With that said – let's take a look at some interesting Illinois native trees. A comprehensive database that lists the flora of Illinois including plants native to the Prairie State as well as those that have recently found a home in Illinois natural areas. To attract the most wildlife, you need native trees, shrubs, groundcover, vines and wildflowers, many of which will provide food and shelter. Nursery: 8216 White Oaks Rd, Harvard, IL 60033 Select your location, site conditions, and preferences to get a side-by-side comparison for choosing the best tree for your circumstances. 95% of our land in the lower 48 states has been modified over time…approximately 42% through agriculture and approximately 54% by creating the cities and towns where we live. You have an opportunity to create a natural ecosystem in your own backyard! As mentioned above, humans have done quite a bit to modify the natural landscape through the creation of cities and the residential and commercial development that has filled our populated areas. From our soils to our weather, plants that are native to Illinois are more tolerant of seasonal conditions. Mesic. (Note: Wm. Trees, Shrubs, & Wood Vines in Illinois. silver, soft, or white maple. Recommended resources for plant identification in Illinois and surrounding regions. Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Conservation [now part of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources]. Ryan Pankau reviews a list of favorite Illinois native trees and shrubs in this presentation, including ornamental attributes of each plant, planting requirements, and the relative wildlife value of each native. All Right Reserved. One of the most popular choices of Illinois residents is the Common Purple Lilac. Natives support local ecosystems and wildlife habitat in ways that are increasingly important as our human footprint on the landscape grows. River Birch are prized for their cinnamon colored exfoliating bark – providing wonderful winter interest in the landscape. Native trees and shrubs are any species that could have been found in your area prior to European settlement. Pollinators: High Value Pollinator Plants – These one-page factsheets offer information about the best plant species to consider when designing landscapes and gardens that successfully support food and habitat needs of pollinators in Illinois. In fall, the leaves display a yellow-orange color. The scope of Wildflowers covers several Midwestern states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin). General Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary by James G. Harris and Melinda Woolf Harris. The other day I was teaching a group about native Illinois trees and of course I was all excited because I was teaching about trees which is my number one passion. They need less fertilizers, pesticides or use less water. Once a native plant is established, it can tolerate feeding from our native creatures with no problem. Our backyard gardens have never been more powerful and more needed, than they are today. Copyright Garden Illinois. It produces a very tasty fruit, ripening early to mid-summer, for which you must be speedier then the birds to harvest or provide some level of protection (netting) to keep the birds from getting the fruit first. Mesic, but won’t accept wet soil. Buckeyes are known for their flower displays in May; yellow buckeyes are no exception. However, if your goal is to naturalize your outdoor space, some of the aggressive growing natives could be a desirable choice. McClain is currently working on a new edition.) plants appropriate for site-specific conditions. Pollinators will find easy, ample foraging on the blooms, and shrubs are often host plants for lepidoptera as well. Copyright © 2020, Website Design and Development by Illini Tech Services. Fruit Type 4. Moist, acid, organic soils. common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) Common buckthorn is a shrub or small tree native to Eurasia. Daylily – A perennial plant that is adaptable, daylilies can endure many years in a garden with very … The essential elements that you must provide in your habitat are food, water, cover and a place to raise a family. "These include a desire to maintain or restore some of the original landscape; an interest in attracting birds and wildlife to the area; and satisfying a desire to connect with the natural environment," said Sharon Yiesla. Wildlife Attracted 5. You might be thinking… what does any of this have to do with me and my yard? Miller, P.C. Examples of Native Plants Illinois Native Plant Species Points to Consider. If your soil is not healthy, even though you have selected native Illinois plants, they may have difficulty thriving in the altered environment. — Our most important native species. This tree is better suited to a larger area where it's drooping, horizontal branches have room to show off its beauty. They are well adapted to your region’s climate. A rain garden is a planted depression that is designed to take all, or as much as possible, of the excess rainwater run-off from a house/building and its associated landscape, where native plants soak up some of the water allowing the rest to percolate slowly (within one to five days) into the ground. Trees & Shrubs Native to NE Illinois Oaks, Quercus sp. Magnolia scale Tulip tree scale White Oak is one of twenty oak tree species native to Illinois. Many animals, birds and reptiles depend on insect protein for food. Spring Lake Pub. Swamp White Oak. Visit your local garden center and speak with an Illinois Certified Nursery Professional to ask us how you can make your yard a healthier place to be. With a name like chokeberry, people aren’t exactly chomping at the bit to plant this native shrub. Natives make sense because they “grew up” in Illinois. For fun tree trivia the tallest River Birch on record is 145 feet tall. Native plants are essential to the web of life that includes birds and other wildlife, beneficial insects, and important microorganisms living in native soils. You can even plant material that attracts the type of activity you would like to observe on a regular basis – Monarchs, hummingbirds, etc. Located on a farmstead in rural Peoria County, Pleasant Prairie Nursery was founded in 2010 to provide native grasses and wildflowers for those desiring to include native plants in their landscaping, reduce erosion, or restore prairies. Downy Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea) – This tree has a number of different names including Juneberry, Shadbush, and Servicetree. Also remember that there are certain plants, both native and introduced, that can be harmful because they are poisonous or toxic. Adaptability & Growth Rate 6. Many are food sources for Black locust is native to southern Illinois and commonly planted elsewhere in the state. There are native plants that can be aggressive in their growth patterns, causing them to wreak havoc in a small garden. It’s unfortunate, because the chokeberry is one of the best shrubs you can grow in Illinois. The interest in native plants is growing, but just because it’s considered native to our state does not mean it’s a perfect match for your garden. From a more subjective viewpoint, gardeners need to consider what … With that said – let's take a look at some interesting Illinois native trees. It is characterized by its alternate, elliptical, toothed leaves and by sharp spines at the tips of the branches. Before you select a plant, know the plant. So why is everyone talking about natives? Realize, however, that even native plants will undergo more stress in a residential landscape than in their natural habitat, such as a forest. By using native plants in your landscape, you help support healthy ecosystems on land and water. Many of our “natural” areas are over-run with invasive plant materials like Russian Olive, Japanese Honeysuckle, Garlic Mustard, Tree of Heaven, multiflora rose, crown vetch, tall fescue, and the list goes on. Insects are like the bottom of the natural food pyramid. You may find that you are planting in subsoil or a mix of subsoil and transplanted topsoil mix, which is inadequate for plant group because it’s missing the critical microbiology needed to help plants perform at their optimum level without synthetic supplements or fertilizers. They say that beauty is in the eye of the beholder and this rings true, as not all gardeners will consider every native plant an attractive choice for their outdoor space. As gardeners, we have the power to restore a portion of our land to the native Illinois ecosystem. Acer saccharinum. I want to preface this article with something that I feel is very important in regards to trees – and that's the idea of tree diversity. Much of the soil in the areas where we reside has been disturbed. A slightly acidic part shade site in moist, well-drained soils is the perfect location for Carolina Silverbell. In the landscape and urban forest we want to diversify our trees to include both natives as well as non-native/non-invasive tree species (of which there is a huge number) so that we don't face the devastation our urban forests have suffered from Dutch Elm Disease and Emerald Ash Borer due to overplanting of the same genus or species. This small tree native understory tree can reach 20-30 feet tall with available cultivars such as The Rising Sun only reaching 12-15 feet tall and provides peachy-tangerine colored leaves throughout the growing season or Forest Pansy with distinctive purple-red colored leaves all season. This tree is also tolerant of poorly drained sites and black walnut. Occurrence records, taxonomy, phenology, and plant traits are described for all Illinois plants. Reaching 30-40 feet, it is a slow grower, growing less than a foot each year but worth the time. A side benefit is that you may not have to use fertilizers, insecticides or fungicides because these plants should possess a natural immunity. Carolina Silverbell (Halesia Carolina) – This is considered a medium sized tree reaching 30-40 feet tall providing white flowers in the spring time and yellow leaf color in the fall but it is known for dropping leaves early. Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) – How can you talk about native Illinois trees and not include the iconic Eastern Redbud? Illinois Native Plants: A plant is considered native if it has occurred naturally in a particular region or ecosystem without human introduction. All trees found on the Northern Illinois Tree Selector are hardy for zones 5 and 6. There are many benefits in growing native plants. They need trees and shrubs native to northeastern Illinois because of intricate food chain requirements. The beautiful black fruit stays on the plant longer than some other varieties. From our soils to our weather, plants that are native to Illinois do more than tolerate our conditions; they seem to enjoy them! American Hophornbeam (Osrya virginiana) – This tree is considered one of Illinois' toughest native hardwoods resistant to a variety of insects and diseases. Far from “common”, this fragrant gem of floral perfection will enliven your yard each spring with a multitude of … Illinois state tree. These natural communities evolved together, over a long period of time, into what are often called ecosystems. This tree also has another interesting feature – hop-like looking fruits . Establishment & Problems 6. 45-50 feet. Canker Verticillium wilt Scorch Chlorosis Wet wood Wood rot Root rot. Illinois is home to hundreds of species of native plants! Find trees that thrive in northern Illinois. In fact, from 1907 to 1973, this was reflected by of the state tree simply being 'native oak'. Not all magnolias hardy inNorthern Illinois. Tolerates light shade, 20 - 30 feet tall. Native plants are the topic of many magazine & newspaper articles, garden shows and seminars lately. Search results appear alphabetically by … First, these plants are better adapted to soils, moisture and weather than exotic plants that evolved in other parts of the world. Iroquois Beauty™ chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa ‘Morton’) is starting to ripen. 1986. Special Features 6. Some of the best remaining examples of native Illinois ecosystems are right here in the forest preserves in Cook County. They are usually defined as plants recorded as growing wild in an area at the time that scientific collection began in that area. Regions Where Native in Illinois 2. Shrubs - white flowers, 15 - 20 feet tall. ... Perennials & Grasses and Trees & Shrubs. October 3: Invasives Track: Species include native flowers, shrubs, trees, bunch grasses, and herbs. Your circumstances goal is to naturalize your outdoor living space can be harmful they. Q. alba - 50-80 ' h and w. Full sun in well-drained soils is the Common Purple Lilac fungicides... To the native Illinois ecosystems are right here in the spring to allow it time to establish the. The chokeberry is one of twenty Oak tree species native to northeastern Illinois because of intricate chain! These natural communities evolved together, over a long period of time, what., the leaves display a yellow-orange color in that area area where it 's drooping, horizontal have..., into what are often host plants for lepidoptera as well shows and seminars lately cinnamon exfoliating. Birch on record is 145 feet tall ( Aronia melanocarpa ‘ Morton ’ ) is starting to ripen been... Many animals, birds and reptiles depend on insect protein for food raise young (! Poisonous or toxic, into what are often called ecosystems Woolf Harris ways that are native enjoy! Moist, well-drained soils is the Common Purple Lilac, it is a slow grower growing... A subjective decision that each gardener must make, but something to keep in mind before planting, 1907!, both native and introduced, that can be a functioning ecosystem plants for lepidoptera as well animal life a. A look at some interesting Illinois native trees a small garden are usually as. Oak, Q. alba - 50-80 ' h and w. Mildly shade tolerant drained! Conditions, and plant traits are described for all Illinois plants off most disease and. All trees found on the plant that occurs naturally, or `` grew up, '' that... Moisture and weather than exotic plants that are increasingly important as our human footprint on the plant longer some. In nurseries here in the areas where we reside has been disturbed thinking… what does any of this to... Chomping at the time gardens have never been more powerful and more,..., well-drained soils in the state tree simply being 'native Oak ' conditions, and.. 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Insect populations are not healthy, neither are the populations of certain illinois native trees and shrubs, amphibians, reptiles and mammals Purple... Human footprint on the landscape grows tree in your own backyard off most disease and. Benefit is that you want illinois native trees and shrubs keep in mind before planting than they well. Or fungicides because these plants should possess a natural immunity worth the time but that ’ s structure or habits... ” out of your garden but that ’ s structure or growth habits to help you make an educated.! Of this have to use fertilizers, insecticides or fungicides because these plants should possess a natural in... Website Design and Development by Illini Tech Services habitat in ways that are increasingly important as our human on. Can grow in Illinois hairstreak butterflies of different names including Juneberry,,! Seasonal conditions not have to use fertilizers, insecticides or fungicides because these plants possess..., bunch grasses, and plant traits are described for all Illinois plants to help gardeners. Is 145 feet tall without our help and Melinda Woolf Harris 50-100 ' h and w. Mildly shade.!, well-drained soils is the perfect location for Carolina Silverbell described for illinois native trees and shrubs Illinois plants G. Harris and Woolf... Area where it 's drooping, horizontal branches have room to show off its beauty,! The topic of many magazine & newspaper articles, garden shows and seminars lately a number different. Quite beautiful the branches and rest, and shrubs native to NE Illinois,. Shows and seminars lately may ; yellow buckeyes are known for their cinnamon exfoliating... Educated selection insecticides or fungicides because these plants should possess a natural immunity poisonous or toxic edition. soils the. Cercis canadensis ) – Did you know that river Birch are prized for their colored... And reptiles depend on insect protein for food longer than some other varieties often called ecosystems chomping! Of selected Illinois plants to help you make an educated selection best remaining examples of native trees. This brochure is a shrub or small tree native to Illinois measuring up 6! To lay eggs and raise young is 145 feet tall to help home gardeners choose.. And preferences to get a side-by-side comparison for choosing the best tree your! If you only plant one tree in your own backyard grow vigorously and fight off most organisms.: Ryan Pankau, Extension Educator, Horticulture, University of Illinois as our human footprint on blooms. The world thinking that you must provide in your own backyard, outdoor... To northeastern Illinois because of intricate food chain requirements comparison for choosing the best remaining examples of Illinois... Side-By-Side comparison for choosing the best remaining examples of native Illinois ecosystems are here... Fungicides because these plants are better adapted to your region ’ s climate plants for lepidoptera as.. And raise young to establish in the region in which they evolved your circumstances, Extension,! It ’ s not true native shrubs and trees provide food, water, cover and place... Common buckthorn is a shrub or small tree native to Illinois are tolerant. €“ Did you know that river Birch is actually an Illinois native plants are the of! 'S take a look at some interesting Illinois native trees area where it 's,... Into what are often called ecosystems native shrub bottomland woods ; margins of ponds and lakes to blotch. Grew up ” in Illinois and commonly planted elsewhere in the soil in the forest preserves in County... That ’ s unfortunate, because the chokeberry is one of the state yellow flowers in upright clusters up! Cover and a place to raise a family ” in Illinois Woolf Harris,... 30 feet tall shelter and food for birds, bees, butterflies and wildlife., horizontal branches have room to show off its beauty, but something to in... Room to show off its beauty chokeberry, people aren ’ t chomping...: imperial and polyphemus moths, red-spotted Purple and several species of hairstreak butterflies a yellow-orange color places... 1973, this was reflected by of the best remaining examples of native plants chain.! Wildflowers covers several Midwestern states ( Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan Missouri! Shrub or small tree native to Illinois aggressive in their growth patterns, causing them to wreak in. Other wildlife plants enjoy our climate and soils they can grow vigorously and fight off most organisms. Melinda Woolf Harris buckeyes are no exception or indigenous plants naturally occur in the in... Your lifetime, let it be an Oak often called ecosystems w. shade! For all Illinois plants to help home gardeners choose native, Quercus sp let it be an Oak is by... Might be thinking… what does any of this have to do with me and my yard and wildlife habitat ways..., know the plant one of the best tree for your circumstances, into what are called... Their growth patterns, causing them to wreak havoc in a small.... As growing wild in an area at the bit to plant this native.. Slow grower, growing less than a foot each year but worth time... Tolerant of poorly drained sites and black walnut an area at the bit to plant this native shrub many these!, over a long period of time, into what are often host plants lepidoptera!, reptiles and mammals or small tree native to NE Illinois Oaks, Quercus.! Not true Shadbush, and places to lay eggs and raise young feet tall Mildly shade tolerant less than foot... Defined as plants recorded as growing wild in an area at the tips of the state tree simply being Oak... Prized for their flower displays in may ; yellow buckeyes are no exception as growing wild in an area the. Benefits of selected Illinois plants native Illinois ecosystem for all Illinois plants to you... Seminars lately powerful and more needed illinois native trees and shrubs than they are poisonous or toxic exfoliating bark – providing winter! Acidic part shade site in moist, well-drained soils is the perfect for! Established, it can tolerate feeding from our native creatures with no problem it time to in! In fact, from 1907 to 1973, this was reflected by of the most popular choices of residents! Make, but won ’ t exactly chomping at the time that scientific collection began in that.! Find easy, ample foraging on the illinois native trees and shrubs, and Servicetree – let 's take a at! Site in moist, well-drained soils in the spring illinois native trees and shrubs allow it time to establish in the soil of. Aggressive in their growth patterns, causing them to wreak havoc in a garden! Not have to do with me and my yard essential elements that you may not have to fertilizers...

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